Seguridad y la ciudad. En busca de un nuevo modelo de resiliencia urbana para los actores violentos no-estatales (VNSAs)



Palabras clave:

Seguridad urbana, resiliencia urbana, barrios cerrados (comunidades cerradas), geografía, globalización, crimen organizado, actores violentos no estatales


Este trabajo tiene como objetivo ofrecer una contribución al debate sobre la seguridad urbana que parte de la asunción - desarrollado en la introducción - que la caída de los regímenes comunistas, el fin de la Guerra Fría, y los procesos de globalización en curso, produjo un cambio de escala de las autoridades, trayendo a las ciudades de nuevo al centro del universo político, y en primer plano, en la competencia por el control de los recursos coercitivos. En otros términos, las ciudades vuelvan a ser los espacios privilegiados de mediación entre los actores principales, tanto a nivel local y en los procesos de globalización; y, como consecuencia, dentro de las ciudades, la violencia resulta ser un mediador fundamental. Esta evolución está ofreciendo los actores violentos no estatales (VNSAs) oportunidades sin precedentes para competir por el control del territorio, dictando a las ciencias sociales una redefinición del concepto de seguridad urbana. La primera sección del documento se basa en la “teoría de la espuma” para delinear un modelo de análisis de los espacios urbanos; la segunda sección discute las estrategias concebidas para brindar seguridad en las últimas décadas, iniciando por los EE.UU.; la tercera sección, se pretende armonizar la teoría de la espuma con el concepto de resiliencia urbana a la violencia. Por último, la Conclusión presagia el advenimiento de una arquitectura del campus, capaz de planear espacios adecuados y brindar nuevas formas alternativas de sociabilidad urbana.

Security and the city. In search of a new model of urban resilience on violent non-state actors (VNSAs)


This paper aims to offer a contribution to the debate on urban security starting from the assumption – developed in the Introduction – that the fall of the communist regimes, the end of the Cold War, and the ongoing globalization processes produced a rescaling of authorities, bringing cities back to the centre of the political universe, and to the fore in the competition for the control of coercive resources. In other terms, cities return to be the privileged spaces of mediation between actors that are main players both at the local level and in the globalization processes; and, as a consequence, inside cities, violence turns out to be a fundamental mediator. This evolution is offering violent non-state actors (VNSAs) unprecedented opportunities to compete for the control of the territory, dictating to social sciences a redefinition of the very concept of urban security. The first section of the paper draws on the “foam theory” to outline a model of analysis of the urban spaces; the second section debates the securitization strategies conceived in the past decades, starting from the USA; the third section is intended to attune foam theory with the concept of urban resilience to violence. Finally, the Conclusion adumbrates the advent of a campus architecture, capable of planning spaces suitable for new and alternative forms of urban sociality.

Keywords: Urban security, urban resilience, gated communities, geography, glo-balization, organized crime, violent non-state actors.


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Biografía del autor/a

Fabio Armao, University of Turin

Full Professor of International Relations


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2016-03-04 — Actualizado el 2021-09-10

Cómo citar

Armao, F. (2021). Seguridad y la ciudad. En busca de un nuevo modelo de resiliencia urbana para los actores violentos no-estatales (VNSAs) . Nóesis. Revista De Ciencias Sociales, 25(49-1), 16–30.



Ciencias Sociales