Seguridad y la ciudad. En busca de un nuevo modelo de resiliencia urbana para los actores violentos no-estatales (VNSAs)

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20983/noesis.2016.12.2

Palabras clave:

Seguridad urbana, resiliencia urbana, barrios cerrados (comunidades cerradas), geografía, globalización, crimen organizado, actores violentos no estatales

Resumen

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo ofrecer una contribución al debate sobre la seguridad urbana que parte de la asunción - desarrollado en la introducción - que la caída de los regímenes comunistas, el fin de la Guerra Fría, y los procesos de globalización en curso, produjo un cambio de escala de las autoridades, trayendo a las ciudades de nuevo al centro del universo político, y en primer plano, en la competencia por el control de los recursos coercitivos. En otros términos, las ciudades vuelvan a ser los espacios privilegiados de mediación entre los actores principales, tanto a nivel local y en los procesos de globalización; y, como consecuencia, dentro de las ciudades, la violencia resulta ser un mediador fundamental. Esta evolución está ofreciendo los actores violentos no estatales (VNSAs) oportunidades sin precedentes para competir por el control del territorio, dictando a las ciencias sociales una redefinición del concepto de seguridad urbana. La primera sección del documento se basa en la “teoría de la espuma” para delinear un modelo de análisis de los espacios urbanos; la segunda sección discute las estrategias concebidas para brindar seguridad en las últimas décadas, iniciando por los EE.UU.; la tercera sección, se pretende armonizar la teoría de la espuma con el concepto de resiliencia urbana a la violencia. Por último, la Conclusión presagia el advenimiento de una arquitectura del campus, capaz de planear espacios adecuados y brindar nuevas formas alternativas de sociabilidad urbana.

Security and the city. In search of a new model of urban resilience on violent non-state actors (VNSAs)

Abstract

This paper aims to offer a contribution to the debate on urban security starting from the assumption – developed in the Introduction – that the fall of the communist regimes, the end of the Cold War, and the ongoing globalization processes produced a rescaling of authorities, bringing cities back to the centre of the political universe, and to the fore in the competition for the control of coercive resources. In other terms, cities return to be the privileged spaces of mediation between actors that are main players both at the local level and in the globalization processes; and, as a consequence, inside cities, violence turns out to be a fundamental mediator. This evolution is offering violent non-state actors (VNSAs) unprecedented opportunities to compete for the control of the territory, dictating to social sciences a redefinition of the very concept of urban security. The first section of the paper draws on the “foam theory” to outline a model of analysis of the urban spaces; the second section debates the securitization strategies conceived in the past decades, starting from the USA; the third section is intended to attune foam theory with the concept of urban resilience to violence. Finally, the Conclusion adumbrates the advent of a campus architecture, capable of planning spaces suitable for new and alternative forms of urban sociality.

Keywords: Urban security, urban resilience, gated communities, geography, glo-balization, organized crime, violent non-state actors.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Fabio Armao, University of Turin

Full Professor of International Relations

Citas

Agnew, John. 2009. Globalization & sovereignty. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Agostini, Giulia, Francesca Chianese, William French y Amita Sandhu. 2010. Understanding the processes of urban violence: An analytical framework. London: Crisis States Research Centre, Development Studies Institute, London School of Economics.

Anderson, Benedict. 2006. Imagined communities. Reflections on the origin and the spread of nationalism. London: Verso.

Armao, Fabio. 2000. Il sistema mafia. Dall'economia-mondo al dominio locale. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.

Armao, Fabio. 2014. Criminal clusters: State and organised crime in a globalised world. The European Review of Organised Crime 1 (1): 122-136.

Atkinson, Rowland y Sarah Blandy (Eds.) 2006. Gated communities. New York: Routledge.

Bagaeen, Samer y Ola Uduku (Eds.) 2010. Gated communities. Social sustainability in contemporary and historical gated developments. London: Earthscan.

Borch, Christian. 2008. Foam architecture: Managing co-isolated associations. Economy and Society 37 (4): 548-571.

Bose, Sumantra. 2002. Bosnia after Dayton: nationalist partition and international intervention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brenner, Neil. 2004. New state spaces: urban governance and the rescaling of statehood. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brown, Wendy. 2010. Walled states, waning sovereignty. New York: Zone Books.

Calhoun, Craig. 1998. Community without propinquity revisited: Communication technology and the transformation of the urban public sphere. Sociological Inquiry 68 (3): 373-397.

Campbell, Trim. 2012. Beyond smart cities. How cities network, learn and innovate. New York: Routledge.

Chatterton, Paul. 2010. Seeking the urban common: furthering the debate on spatial justice. City 14 (6): 625-628.

Coaffee, Jon. 2009. Terrorism, risk and the global city: toward urban resilience. Burlington: Ashgate.

Coaffee, Jon, David Murakami y Peter Rogers. 2009. The everyday resilience of the city: How cities respond to terrorism and disaster. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Coulson, Jonathan, Paul Roberts e Isabelle Taylor. 2011. University planning and architecture. The search for perfection. New York: Routledge.

Coward, Martin. 2009. Urbicide. The politics of urban destruction. New York: Routledge.

Davis, Diane. 2003. Contemporary challenges and historical reflections on the study of militaries, states, and politics. En Irregular armed forces and their role in politics and state formation, (Eds.), Diane Davis y Anthony Pereira, pp. 3-34. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davis, Diane. 2009. Non-state armed actors, new imagined communities, and shifting patterns of sovereignty and insecurity in the modern world. Contemporary Security Policy 30 (2): 221-245.

Davis, Diane. 2010. Irregular armed forces, shifting patterns of commitment, and fragmented sovereignty in the developing world. Theory and Society 39 (3-4): 397-413.

Davis, Diane. 2012. Urban resilience in situations of chronic violence. http://www.urcvproject.org/uploads/Davis_URCV_Final.pdf. http://web.mit.edu/cis/urbanresiliencereport2012.pdf

Davis, Mike. 2006. Planet of slums. London: Verso.

Dikeç, Mustafa. 2006. Two decades of French urban policy: From social development of neighbourhoods to the Republican penal state. Antipode 38 (1): 59-81.

Dober, Richard. 2000. Campus landscape. Functions, forms, features. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Easton, David. 1965. A system analysis of political life. New York: John Wiley.

Eterno, John y Eli Silverman. 2012. The crime numbers game. Management by manipulation. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Fujita, Makoto, Paul Krugman y Anthony Venables. 1999. The spatial economy: Cities, regions and international trade. Cambridge: Mit Press.

Fuller, Brandon y Paul Romer. 2012. Success and the city. How charter cities could transform the developing world. http://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/files/pdf/How-charter-cities-could-transform-the-developing-world-April-2012.pdf. (25 de febrero de 2015).

Glaeser, Edward. 2011. Triumph of the city. New York: The Penguin Press.

Graham, Stephen. 2004. Cities, war, and terrorism. Malden: Blackwell.

Graham, Stephen. 2010. Cities under siege. The new military urbanism. London: Verso.

Graham, Stephen and Simon Marvin. 2001. Splintering urbanism. Networked infrastructures, technological mobilities, and the urban condition. New York: Routledge.

Harvey, David. 2008. The right to the city. New Left Review 53: 23-40.

Hodkinson, Stuart. 2012. The new urban enclosures. City 16 (5): 500-518.

Hollands, Robert. 2008. Will the real smart city please stand up? Intelligent, progressive or entrepreneurial? City 12 (3): 303-320.

Hoover, Larry. 2013. Police crime control strategies. Clifton Park: Delmar Cengage Learning.

ICPC. (International Centre for the Prevention of Crime). 2010. International report on crime prevention and community safety: Trends and perspectives. Montreal: www.crime-prevention-intl-org. (25 de febrero de 2015).

Jessop, Bob. 2002. The future of the capitalist state. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Klauser, Francisco. 2010. Splintering spheres of insecurity: Peter Sloterdijk and the contemporary fortress city. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 28 (2):326-340.

Klauser, Francisco. 2012. Thinking through territoriality: Introducing Claude Raffestin to anglophone sociospatial theory. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. 30 (1): 106-120.

Kraska, Peter. (Ed.) 2001. Militarizing the American criminal justice system. The changing roles of the armed forces and the police. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Lane, Frederic. 1979. Profits from power: readings in protection rent and violence-controlling enterprises. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Latour, Bruno. 2005. Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

Leitner, Michael. (Ed.) 2013. Crime modeling and mapping using geospatial technologies. Dordrecht: Springer.

Levitt, Steven. 2004. Understanding why crime fell in the 1990s: four factors that explain the decline and six that do not. Journal of Economic Perspectives 18 (1): 163-190.

Lippert, Randy y Kevin. Walby. (Eds.) 2013. Policing cities. Urban securitization and regulation in a 21st century world. New York: Routledge.

Livingston, Steven y Gregor Walter-Drop. 2012. Information and communication technologies in areas of limited statehood. Berlin: SFB – Governance Working Paper Series Num. 38, pp. 1-28

Luhmann, Niklas. 1995. Social systems. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Manning, P. K. 2008. The technology of policing: crime mapping, information technology, and the rationality of crime control. New York: New York University Press.

Marcuse, Peter. 2006. Security or safety in cities? The threat of terrorism after 9/11. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30 (4): 919-929.

Marcuse, Peter. 2010. The forms of power and the forms of cities: building on Charles Tilly. Theory and Society 39 (3-4): 471-485.

Moncada, Eduardo. 2013. Business and the politics of urban violence in Colombia. Studies in Comparative International Development 48 (3): 308-330.

Moser-Nonesi, Caroline. 2004. Urban violence and insecurity: an introductory roadmap. Environment & Urbanization 16 (2): 3-16.

Murphy, Alexander. 2012. Entente territorial: Sack and Raffestin on territoriality. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. 30 (1): 159-172.

Newman, Oscar.1972. Defensible space: Crime prevention through urban design. New York: Macmillan.

Newman, Oscar. 1973. Architectural design for crime prevention. Washington D.C.: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.

Newman, Oscar. 1996. Creating defensible space. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research.

Olson, Mancur. 2000. Power and prosperity. Outgrowing communist and capitalist dictatorships. New York: Basic Books.

Paulsen, Derek. 2013. Crime and planning: Building socially sustainable communities. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis.

Pitelis, Christos, Roger Sugden y James Wilson (Eds.) 2006. Clusters and globalisation. The development of urban and regional economies. Northampton: Edward Elgar.

Porter, Michael. 1990. The competitive advantage of nations. New York: The Free Press.

Porter, Michael. 2003. The economic performance of regions. Regional Studies 37 (6-7): 549-578.

Raffestin, Claude. 2012. Space, territory, and territoriality. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 30 (1): 121-141.

Rogers, Peter. 2012. Resilience & the city: Change, (dis)order and disaster. Burlington: Ashgate.

Sassen, Saskia. 1994. Cities in a world economy. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.

Sassen, Saskia. 2006. Territory, authority, rights: From medieval to global assemblages. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Sassen, Saskia. 2007. A Sociology of globalization. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Savitch, Hank. 2015. Cities in a time of terror. Space, territory, and local resilience. New York: Routledge.

Sloterdijk, Peter. 2014. Globes. Spheres Volume II: macrospherology. Cambridge: Mit Press.

Soja, Edward. 2000. Postmetropolis. Critical studies of cities and regions. Oxford: Blackwell.

Soja, Edward. 2010. Seeking spatial justice. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Somaini, Eugenio. 2009. Geografia della democrazia. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Stern, Robert. 2010. On campus. Architecture, identity, and community. New York: The Monacelli Press.

Strange, Susan. 1996. The retreat of the state. The diffusion of power in the world economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tilly, Charles .1975. Reflections on the history of the European state making. En The formation of national states in Western Europe, (Ed.) Charles Tilly, pp. 3-83. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Tilly, Charles. 1990. Coercion, capital, and European states, AD 990-1992. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Tilly, Charles. 2010. Cities, states, and trust networks: Chapter 1 of Cities and states in world history. Theory and Society 39 (3-4): 265-280.

UNDP. 2012. Technology and citizen participation in the construction of democracy. Mexico.

UNODC. 2011. Introductory handbook on policing urban space. New York.

Wacquant, Loic. 2008. The militarization of urban marginality: lessons from the Brazilian metropolis. International Political Sociology 1(2): 56-74.

Wixted, Brian. 2009. Innovation system frontiers. Cluster networks and global value. Berlin: Springer.

Wood, Geof. 2003. Staying secure, staying poor: The 'Faustian bargain'. World Development 31 (3): 455-471.

WORLD BANK. 2013. Building urban resilience. Principles, tools, and practice. Washington D.C.

Zertal, IdithI y Akiva Eldar. 2007. Lords of land: the war over Israel's settlements in the occupied territories, 1967-2007. New York: Nation Books.

Publicado

2016-03-04 — Actualizado el 2021-09-10

Cómo citar

Armao, F. (2021). Seguridad y la ciudad. En busca de un nuevo modelo de resiliencia urbana para los actores violentos no-estatales (VNSAs) . Nóesis. Revista De Ciencias Sociales, 25(49-1), 16–30. https://doi.org/10.20983/noesis.2016.12.2

Número

Sección

Ciencias Sociales