La producción del espacio y la violencia en las ciudades del sur global: Evidencia de América Latina / The production of space and violence in cities of the global south: Evidence from Latin America

Diane Davis



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20983/noesis.2016.12.1

Resumen


Basado en investigación primaria y secundaria, este artículo evalúa la dinámica espacial que sustentan los altos índices de violencia urbana en América Latina. Argumenta que tanto los orígenes como las respuestas a la violencia urbana en América Latina han implicado algún tipo de ordenamiento del territorio por parte del estado, que por un lado va desde las prácticas de planificación urbana modernista, hasta el control de los espacios urbanos por parte de la policía, por el otro. Al punto que tanto los esfuerzos para imponer orden social y espacial en las ciudades de América Latina se han derivado y han reforzado una historia de ocupación ilegal, derechos de propiedad ambiguos, y la distribución desigual de los servicios, lo que produce una distinción rígida entre la llamada ciudad formal y la informal, sentando las bases para la violencia urbana. A continuación, vemos cómo y por qué los esfuerzos del gobierno para crear orden espacial y social han producido esta lamentable situación. La idea es que las suposiciones y las ideas que subyacen la imposición de las prioridades de la planificación modernistas y las prácticas espaciales en zonas urbanas de América Latina, han contribuido inadvertidamente a un conjunto de problemas espaciales, sociales, económicos y políticos interrelacionados que han impulsado el ciclo de la violencia urbana.

Abstract

Drawing on primary and secondary research, this article assesses the spatial dynamics that underpin high rates of urban violence in Latin America. It argues that both the origins and responses to urban violence in Latin America have involved some sort of state ordering of territory, ranging from modernist urban planning practices on the one hand to police control over urban spaces on the other. To the extent that efforts to impose social and spatial order in Latin American cities have both derived from and reinforced a history of squatter occupation, ambiguous property rights, and uneven distribution of services, thus producing a stark distinction between the so-called formal and the informal city, they have laid the foundations for urban violence. In what follows, we see how and why government efforts to create spatial and social order have produced this unfortunate state of affairs. The claim is that the assumptions and ideas underlying the imposition of modernist planning priorities and spatial practices in urban Latin America have inadvertently contributed to a set of inter-related spatial, social, economic, and political problems that have driven the cycle of urban violence.


Palabras clave


Ciudades; violencia; fragmentación espacial; exclusión social; planificación modernista

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Copyright (c) 2016 Diane Davis

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Nóesis. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, año 29, número 57, semestre enero-junio 2020, es una publicación electrónica semestral, editada por la Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez a través del Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Administración, Avenida Heroico Colegio Militar s/n, Edificio N, oficina 204-E, zona Chamizal, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, C.P. 32310, Tel: +52 (656) 6882100 ext. 3797. www.revistanoesis.mx, noesis@uacj.mx. Editor responsable: Dr. José de Jesús Cortés Vera. Reserva de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo Núm. 04-2013-101613484300-203, otorgada por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor.   E-ISSN: 2395-8669   P-ISSN: 0188-9834. 

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