Procesos de Oxidación Avanzada y Electroquímicos para Remover Edulcorantes Artificiales del Agua

Humberto Rubí Juárez



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20983/culcyt.2020.1.3.1

Resumen


El objetivo de la presente revisión es presentar investigaciones recientes sobre la remoción de algunos edulcorantes —reconocidos como contaminantes emergentes— del agua o matrices acuosas, utilizando los Procesos de Oxidación Avanzada (POA). En un intento por evadir el consumo de endulzantes calóricos que han provocado problemas de salud, los seres humanos consumen edulcorantes artificiales que prácticamente no se metabolizan después de ingerirse, de esa forma se integran al agua residual e inclusive resisten la degradación total en las plantas de tratamiento de agua convencionales. Por tanto, en bases de datos se revisaron electrooxidación, electro-Fenton, foto-Fenton, fotocatálisis heterogénea, oxidación por ultravioleta/peróxido y oxidación por ultravioleta/ozono, catalogados como POA. Estos procesos son una alternativa debido a que generan radicales hidroxilo ·OH, caracterizados por su alto poder oxidante. La electrooxidación se puede declarar como la más conveniente para la degradación de edulcorantes artificiales como el acesulfamo de potasio, por ejemplo, debido a la menor cantidad de componentes requeridos para su ejecución y, al mismo tiempo, se logra una eficiencia de remoción similar, o incluso mayor, comparada con otros POA. Igualmente, se documentaron los resultados y méritos relativos a la aplicación de estos al agua o matrices acuosas, así como las oportunidades para investigación futura.


Palabras clave


Edulcorante artificial; POA; electrooxidación; luz UV; radical hidroxilo.

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Referencias


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