Desórdenes alimentarios y su asociación con la forma física y la composición corporal en adultos jóvenes: revisión sistemática

David Olivas-Dávila, Rebeca Chávez-Herrera, Aida S. Castro-Sosa, Lilia C. Pérez-Hernández, Arnulfo Ramos-Jimenez


Objetivo: Dado que la forma física y la composición corporal se ven afectadas por las perturbaciones en el comportamiento alimentario, estos dos factores están relacionados teóricamente; sin embargo, no identificamos estudios cuyo objetivo principal sea estudiar estas relaciones. Esta revisión sistemática actualizada analiza los estudios publicados a partir de 2011 sobre trastornos alimentarios y cómo estos trastornos se asocian o modifican la forma física y la composición corporal de mujéres jóvenes (18-45 años).
Métodos: Se realizaron búsquedas en Scopus, MEDLINE y Science Direct utilizando las palabras clave “Trastornos alimentarios”, “Composición corporal”, “Forma corporal”, “Desnutrición”, “Obesidad” y “Anorexia”.
De los 10 031 artículos identificados mediante selección independiente, tres investigadores seleccionaron 15 manuscritos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión.
Resultados: Ninguno de los manuscritos describió la forma física; solo se abordó la composición corporal.
La densitometría de rayos X (DXA) fue el método de medición más utilizado, mientras que la antropometría se usó erróneamente para evaluar la composición corporal.
Conclusiones: Los cambios en la composición corporal, no en la forma del cuerpo, se asociaron con la presencia de trastornos alimentarios en mujeres adultas jóvenes, pero no con la severidad del comportamiento.
No encontramos manuscritos que estudien los desórdenes alimentarios en hombres. 

Palabras clave

anorexia nerviosa; trastorno por atracón; constitución corporal; desnutrición, salud mental, ejercicio físico

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