Desórdenes alimentarios y su asociación con la forma física y la composición corporal en adultos jóvenes: revisión sistemática

David Olivas-Dávila, Rebeca Chávez-Herrera, Aida S. Castro-Sosa, Lilia C. Pérez-Hernández, Arnulfo Ramos-Jimenez

Resumen


Objetivo: Dado que la forma física y la composición corporal se ven afectadas por las perturbaciones en el comportamiento alimentario, estos dos factores están relacionados teóricamente; sin embargo, no identificamos estudios cuyo objetivo principal sea estudiar estas relaciones. Esta revisión sistemática actualizada analiza los estudios publicados a partir de 2011 sobre trastornos alimentarios y cómo estos trastornos se asocian o modifican la forma física y la composición corporal de mujéres jóvenes (18-45 años).
Métodos: Se realizaron búsquedas en Scopus, MEDLINE y Science Direct utilizando las palabras clave “Trastornos alimentarios”, “Composición corporal”, “Forma corporal”, “Desnutrición”, “Obesidad” y “Anorexia”.
De los 10 031 artículos identificados mediante selección independiente, tres investigadores seleccionaron 15 manuscritos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión.
Resultados: Ninguno de los manuscritos describió la forma física; solo se abordó la composición corporal.
La densitometría de rayos X (DXA) fue el método de medición más utilizado, mientras que la antropometría se usó erróneamente para evaluar la composición corporal.
Conclusiones: Los cambios en la composición corporal, no en la forma del cuerpo, se asociaron con la presencia de trastornos alimentarios en mujeres adultas jóvenes, pero no con la severidad del comportamiento.
No encontramos manuscritos que estudien los desórdenes alimentarios en hombres. 


Palabras clave


anorexia nerviosa; trastorno por atracón; constitución corporal; desnutrición, salud mental, ejercicio físico

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Agüera, Z., Romero, X., Arcelus, J., Sánchez, I., Riesco, N., Jiménez-Murcia, S., ... & Tárrega, S. (2015). Changes in body composition in anorexia nervosa: predictors of recovery and treatment outcome. PloS one, 10(11), e0143012.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Am Psychiatr Publ (2013).

Bloch, M., Ish-Shalom, S., Greenman, Y., Klein, E., & Latzer, Y. (2012). Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment effects on weight, bone density, bone metabolism and mood in women suffering from anorexia nervosa—a pilot study. Psychiatry research, 200(2), 544-549.

Borkan, G. A., Gerzof, S. G., Robbins, A. H., Hults, D. E., Silbert, C. K., & Silbert, J. E. (1982). Assessment of abdominal fat content

by computed tomography. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 36(1), 172-177.

Bratland-Sanda, S., Martinsen, E. W., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2012). Changes in physical fitness, bone mineral density and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight females with longstanding eating disorders. International journal of environmental research and public health, 9(1), 315-330.

Bredella, M. A., Fazeli, P. K., Daley, S. M., Miller, K. K., Rosen, C. J., Klibanski, A., & Torriani, M. (2014). Marrow fat composition in anorexia nervosa. Bone, 66, 199-204.

Bredella, M. A., Gill, C. M., Keating, L. K., Torriani, M., Anderson, E. J., Punyanitya, M., ... & Miller, K. K. (2013). Assessment of abdominal fat compartments using DXA in premenopausal women from anorexia nervosa to morbid obesity. Obesity, 21(12), 2458-2464.

Cash, T. F. (2004). Body image: Past, present, and future. Body image, 1(1), 1-5.

Collins, M. A., Millard-Stafford, M. L., Sparling, P. B., Snow, T. K., Rosskopf, L. B., Webb, S. A., & Omer, J. (1999). Evaluation of the Bod Pod for assessing body fat in collegiate football players. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 31(9), 1350-1356.

Conway, J. M., Norris, K. H., & Bodwell, C. E. (1984). A new approach for the estimation of body composition: infrared interactance. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 40(6), 1123-1130.

De Mateo, S. B., Redondo, D. R. P., Camina, M. A., Soto, C. M., Alonso, T. S., & Miján, D. L. T. A. (2012). Effect of refeeding on the body composition of females with restrictive anorexia nervosa; anthropometry versus bioelectrical impedance. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 28(5), 1717-1724.

El Ghoch, M., Alberti, M., Milanese, C., Battistini, N. C., Pellegrini, M., Capelli, C., ... & Dalle Grave, R. (2012). Comparison between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and skinfolds thickness in assessing body fat in anorexia nervosa before and after weight restoration.

Clinical nutrition, 31(6), 911-916.

El Ghoch, M., Milanese, C., Calugi, S., Müller, M. J., Pourhassan, M., Ruocco, A., & Dalle Grave, R. (2015a). Regional fat distribution in adolescent and adult females with anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal study. Clinical Nutrition, 34(6), 1224-1232.

El Ghoch, M., Milanese, C., Calugi, S., Pellegrini, M., Battistini, N. C., & Dalle Grave, R. (2014). Body composition, eating disorder psychopathology, and psychological distress in anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal study. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 99(4), 771-778.

El Ghoch, M., Pourhassan, M., Milanese, C., Müller, M. J., Calugi, S., Bazzani, P. V., & Dalle Grave, R. (2015b). Changes in lean and skeletal muscle body mass in adult females with anorexia nervosa before and after weight restoration. Clinical Nutrition. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2015.10.006.

Elia, M., Fuller, N. J., Hardingham, C. R., Graves, M., Screaton, N., Dixon, A. K., & Ward, L. C. (2000). Modeling Leg Sections by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, Dual-Energy Xray Absorptiometry, and Anthropometry: Assessing Segmental Muscle Volume Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Reference. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 904(1), 298-305.

Fairburn, C. G., Welch, S. L., Doll, H. A., Davies, B. A., & O’connor, M. E. (1997). Risk factors for bulimia nervosa: A community-based case-control study. Archives of General psychiatry, 54(6), 509-517.

Fisher, S. (1970). Body experience in fantasy and behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Fuller, N. J., Hardingham, C. R., Graves, M., Screaton, N., Dixon, A. K., Ward, L. C., & Elia, M. (1999). Assessment of limb muscle and adipose tissue by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using magnetic resonance imaging for comparison. International journal of obesity, 23, 1295-1302.

Gómez-Ambrosi, J., Silva, C., Galofré, J. C., Escalada, J., Santos, S., Millán, D., ... & Rotellar, F. (2012). Body mass index classification misses subjects with increased cardiometabolic risk factors related to elevated adiposity. International journal of obesity, 36(2), 286-294.

Gradmark, A. M., Rydh, A., Renström, F., De Lucia-Rolfe, E., Sleigh, A., Nordström, P. & Franks, P. W. (2010). Computed tomography-based validation of abdominal adiposity measurements from ultrasonography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry. British journal of nutrition, 104(04), 582-588.

Haas, V., Riedl, A., Hofmann, T., Nischan, A., Burghardt, R., Boschmann, M., & Klapp, B. (2012). Bioimpedance and bioimpedance vector analysis in patients with anorexia nervosa. European Eating Disorders Review, 20(5), 400-405.

Kosmiski, L., Schmiege, S. J., Mascolo, M., Gaudiani, J., & Mehler, P. S. (2013). Chronic starvation secondary to anorexia nervosa is associated with an adaptive suppression of resting energy expenditure. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 99(3), 908-914.

Lawson, E. A., Donoho, D. A., Blum, J. I., Meenaghan, E. M., Misra, M., Herzog, D. B., ... & Klibanski, A. (2011). Decreased nocturnal oxytocin levels in anorexia nervosa are associated with low bone mineral density and fat mass. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 72(11), 1546.

Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P., ... & Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med, 6(7), e1000100.

Maïano, C., Morin, A. J., Monthuy-Blanc, J., Garbarino, J. M., & Ninot, G. (2016). Development and validity of a very short form of the Eating Disorder Inventory. Comprehensive psychiatry, 65, 141-149.

Marco, J. H., Perpina, C., & Botella, C. (2013). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy supported by virtual reality in the treatment of body image in eating disorders: one year follow-up. Psychiatry Research, 209(3), 619-625.

Mijnarends, D. M., Meijers, J. M., Halfens, R. J., ter Borg, S., Luiking, Y. C., Verlaan, S., ... & Schols, J. M. (2013). Validity and reliability of tools to measure muscle mass, strength, and physical performance in community-dwelling older people: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(3), 170-178.

Mitchell, J. E., & Crow, S. (2006). Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19(4), 438-443

Miyatani, M., Kanehisa, H., & Fukunaga, T. (2000). Validity of bioelectrical impedance and ultrasonographic methods for estimating the muscle volume of the upper arm. European journal of applied physiology, 82(5), 391-396.

Pattyn, N., Peeters, M. W., Balloey, E., Claessens, A. L., & Probst, M. (2011). Body composition assessment in anorexia nervosa patients by air displacement plethysmography, bioelectrical impedance and skin fold measurements. International Journal of Body Composition Research, 9(2), 49-56.

Polnay, A., James, V. A. W., Hodges, L., Murray, G. D., Munro, C., & Lawrie, S. M. (2014). Group therapy for people with bulimia nervosa: systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological medicine, 44(11), 2241-2254.

Prioletta, A., Muscogiuri, G., Sorice, G. P., Lassandro, A. P., Mezza, T., Policola, C., ... & Giaccari, A. (2011). In anorexia nervosa, even a small increase in abdominal fat is responsible for the appearance of insulin resistance. Clinical endocrinology, 75(2), 202-206.

Prior, B. M., Cureton, K. J., Modlesky, C. M., Evans, E. M., Sloniger, M. A., Saunders, M., & Lewis, R. D. (1997). In vivo validation of whole body composition estimates from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Journal of applied physiology, 83(2), 623-630.

Ramos-Jimenez, A., Chavez-Herrera, R., Castro-Sosa, A. S., Perez-Hernández, L. C., Hernández-Torres, R. P., Olivas-Davila, D. Body shape, image, and composition as predictors of athlete´s performance. In Hasan Sozen (Ed.). Fitness Medicine. Ordu University, School of Physical Education and Sports. (2016). In-Tech, Turkey. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/fitness-medicine/body-shape-image-and-composition-as-predictors-of-athlete-s-performance

Raymond, N. C., Peterson, R. E., Bartholome, L. T., Raatz, S. K., Jensen, M. D., & Levine, J. A. (2012). Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder. Obesity, 20(4), 765-772.

Shapiro, J. R., Berkman, N. D., Brownley, K. A., Sedway, J. A., Lohr, K. N., & Bulik, C. M. (2007). Bulimia nervosa treatment: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40(4), 321-336.

Silleras, M., Redondo del Río, P., Camina Martín, A., Soto Célix, M., Alonso Torre, S. R., & Miján de la Torre, A. (2013). Efecto de la realimentación en la composición corporal de mujeres con anorexia nerviosa restrictiva: antropometría frente a impedancia bioeléctrica. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 28(5), 1717-1724.

Shontz, F. C. (1969). Perceptual and cognitive aspects of body experience. New York: Macmillan.

Wall-Medrano, A., Ramos-Jiménez, A., Hernandez-Torres, R. P., Villalobos-Molina, R., Tapia-Pancardo, D. C., Jiménez-Flores, J. R., ... & Urquídez-Romero, R. (2016). Cardiometabolic risk in young adults from northern Mexico: Revisiting body mass index and waistcircumference as predictors. BMC public health, 16(1), 236.

Yanovski, S. Z., Leet, M., Yanovski, J. A., Flood, M. N., Gold, P. W., Kissileff, H. R., & Walsh, B. T. (1992). Food selection and intake of

obese women with binge-eating disorder. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 56(6), 975-980.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.