Increased trade openness, productivity, employment and wages: a difference-in-differences approach

Silvia Adriana Peluffo Geronazzo

Resumen


En este trabajo se analiza el efecto del aumento de la competencia debido a la creación del Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR) sobre la productividad, el empleo y los salarios a nivel de los establecimientos del sector manufacturero uruguayo. Se utilizan técnicas de evaluación de impacto, sin y con matching para el período 1988-1995. Uno de los resultados más robustos es que el aumento de la apertura comercial aumenta la productividad total de los factores a nivel de los establecimientos. Además se encuentra una reducción en el empleo, en particular de los trabajadores menos calificados, aumentos en los salarios y una reducción de la brecha salarial entre los trabajadores calificados y los menos calificados como resultado del incremento en la apertura comercial. Así, el aumento en la productividad y el aumento del desempleo de los trabajadores menos calificados señalarían la necesidad de políticas de capacitación, empleo y otras políticas sociales a fin de neutralizar los efectos negativos del aumento de la apertura comercial sobre los trabajadores menos calificados.

This paper analyses the effects of increased competition resulting from the creation of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) on productivity, employment and wages for the Uruguayan manufacturing sector at the plant level. We use impact evaluation techniques, namely regressions and matching and difference-in-differences estimation for the period 1988-1995. One of the most robust findings is that increased trade liberalization seems to improve total factor productivity. Furthermore, we find reductions in employment driven mainly by the decrease in blue collars, increases in wages and a reduction in the wage gap between white and blue collars as a result of increased trade exposure. Thus, the increase in productivity along with the unemployment of unskilled workers would indicate a room for training, labour and social policies in order to countervail the negative impact of trade liberalization on less qualified workers.


Palabras clave


política comercial; productividad; empleo; salarios;

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